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時間:2022-08-27 來源:本站 點擊:258次
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Ukrainian, Russian delegations arrive for talks******

The Ukrainian and Russian delegations arrived at the Ukrainian-Belarusian border for talks on Monday.

Key issues of the talks would be an immediate ceasefire and the withdrawal of Russian troops from Ukraine, the Ukrainian President's Office said Monday on its Telegram page.

The Ukrainian delegation includes David Arakhamia, head of the Party of Servant of the People; Oleksiy Reznikov, minister of defense and Mykhailo Podoliak, adviser to the Head of the President's Office, the office said.

Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov said on Sunday that a delegation including representatives of the foreign ministry, the defense ministry and other government agencies has arrived in Belarus.

After a seesaw struggle between the two sides, a ray of hope emerged as Russia and Ukraine agreed to meet for talks.

Russia launched a military operation against Ukraine on February 24.

神吐槽:来自东方的神秘力量 竟可轻松戒毒瘾******  修仙入我心,忘记海洛因。最新发现,一股来自东方的神秘力量,竟然可以轻轻松松戒毒瘾!

  【中国网络小说走红国外 让美国男子成功戒除毒瘾】美国某男子失恋后成了瘾君子,一次偶然的机会,他接触了中国网络小说,从此一发不可收拾,小伙说:“过去我回家后只想着吸毒,现在我回家后满脑子想的都是中国小说。”

 

  小伙的入坑作是《盘龙》,随后翻遍网络找到了三个翻译网站,同时追15部中国网络小说,半年成功戒掉可卡因。可谓一入玄幻深似海,从此毒品是路人。

  小伙之前想吸毒,现在想成仙了。大兄弟,你这是染上了新毒品啊!

 

  美国有好莱坞,韩国有韩剧,中国有玄幻小说,而且威力竟然已经达到可卡因级别!吸毒只能让你产生幻觉,看中国小说又能让你修仙又能让你穿越又能让你进阶,一举好几得!戒掉老婆和毒瘾,以后就差吃饭了,没事可以多学学避谷。

 

  中国文化博大精深,也许这是一条文化“走出去”的新路径,试问天下,哪位男生不想当霸道总裁武林霸主,哪位少女没有想象过自己大战群女翻身做娘娘的情节呢?

 

  入了网络小说的坑,可以先看言情再看玄幻再看宫斗后来看耽美,从王爷皇帝丞相等等到了霸道总裁,从柔弱女主到泼辣女主再到强硬女主还有现在的女配翻身!从男女爱恋看腻歪了再看男男爱恋的道路!别说来自星星的你那种套路了,我们中国人鬼恋不知道有了多久了!现在僵尸和女主,蛇王和女主,龙王和女主!各种王和女主!

 

  据说人类的成瘾机智是类似的,都是刺激多巴胺分泌(或不许被重新吸收造成堆积效果),所以抽烟(分泌多巴胺)可以抑止食欲(吃饭产生多巴胺),所以人可以通过对别的活动上瘾转移注意力,好比为什么许多人戒烟的时候喜欢吃零食,也就可以解释,为什么我会对瓜子鸭脖辣条凤爪鸡腿薯片……上瘾了。

 

  在我们身边,有很多随处可见的精神毒品,且敌军深入人民内部,请大家注意防范。

 

  一日养猫,终生为奴。比如被大家喜爱的婷婷,早已放弃戒掉猫的瘾,并且从不放弃给身边的朋友看mao片,企图拉大家下水。

 

  但是人生苦短,谁还不能有点兴趣爱好?有人喜欢熬夜看剧,有人喜欢氪金升级,只是有的人的兴趣爱好,需要花更多的钱。

  当我下载一个新游戏的时候,我以为只试一次不会怎么样,直到后来……

 

  上上个月,氪得少,我吃啥,狗吃啥;

  上个月,氪得多,狗吃啥,我吃啥;

  这个月,厉害了,准备吃狗。

 

  又比如早上坐地铁,看见上来一个人,我以为带炸弹上来的呢!头一次看见耳机发烧友这么专业的,长见识了!

 

  老沙:竟然还有如此专业的耳机发烧友,估计用的是核电吧。

  达夫:这发型,估计是为了不挡住耳机特意剃的。

  公公:看来为了发烧把车都卖了,还得跟你一块儿挤地铁。

 

  可是喜欢什么不好,干嘛喜欢器材?单反穷三代,摄影毁一生。这些就是巨大的坑,进去你就别想出来,比迈炫更过瘾,根本停不下来。都说卖肾买iPhone,其实大家不知道,索尼和苹果用户的最大区别,就是苹果的设备一咬牙一跺脚还能买得起全套……

 

  我也想控制我自己啊,可谁让我们心甘情愿呢,我这不叫上瘾,是爱!

  朋友和男票说:想要教堂的婚礼。

  男票:不要。

  朋友:为啥啊,女孩子都换在教堂举办婚礼。

  男票:你我都不信教,在教堂是对上帝的亵渎。

  朋友:那我们只能在索尼专卖店举办婚礼了。

  (索尼:又有新业务,离破产又晚了一天。)

 

  【以下是吐槽联播】

  编辑部老司机提示您:上车请刷卡,前门上车,后门也可以上车~~

 

  【女子给跪地乞丐一袋麻花 被扔进垃圾桶】天桥上的乞丐大家都见过吧,前几天西安有个妹子开开心心逛着街,看到路边有位60多岁模样的妇女在乞讨,觉得心疼就送了她一袋麻花。

 

  谁知过了一会儿,麻花竟然被乞丐扔进了垃圾桶……

 

  我知道有职业乞丐,但我不知道现在骗子这么有钱,好好一袋麻花也能扔垃圾桶?!我都舍不得扔,你说到底谁才是乞丐。

  你让月入数万的人吃麻花?天真(摊手)!有些人站着穷,有些人跪着富。所以别怪大众无情,都是骗子太多。对付骗子有个诀窍,向你讨钱的你给吃的,向你讨吃的你给钱,一般错不了。

 

  想起上次外卖小哥说,他一个月挣两三万,六杯奶茶都摔了,他也赔得起。

  我想说,半杯奶茶口地上,我都得蹲旁边心疼半天。

 

  六杯奶茶什么的没啥了不起,据说这才是炫富的最高境界——

 

  【泰国女富豪征第九任老公 逾五万人报名】泰国58岁女企业家莉娜(Leena Jungjanya)先前公开征婚,称前夫不能满足她,要征第九任老公,她开出的条件是有6块肌、年约25岁、身高180公分…最重要的是能“每天行房28次”。

  28次?!这活脱脱一个“行走的插座”啊……

 

  但是不用担心,富豪征婚后有5万多人报名,她也很快宣布找到新任“真命天子”。

  小伙子,钱不好挣,这也是体力活,六味地黄丸要不要,治肾亏,不含糖:)

 

  五万人:我不是看上她的钱。

  千言万语我只想说:有……钱……真……好。

  你们难道不关心她第八任老公的下落吗?估计坟头两米高了吧!

 

  有钱没地儿花的还有这位妹纸。

  【女子为“返老还童” 花68万被摸10次脸】南京有位李教授打出“返老还童术”的招牌,号称凭借阴阳五行和气功,能让人返老还童。事业小有成就的文女士真信了,前不久花了68万,只被人摸了10次脸。她觉得自己中了圈套,刷卡单显示,刷卡日期为2016年11月26日,金额为68万。

 

  我看模样没还童,智商倒是还童了。这个智商还能赚68万,我也是震惊了!真羡慕她的运气。好想人傻钱多,可惜我那么聪明而且那么穷。

 

  帝都人民智慧多,为了上班不堵车,大家也是蛮拼的。

  【燕郊族为避开拥堵“偷渡”进京】据网友爆料:住燕郊在北京上班的人为了不迟到,奇思妙想不走寻常路,从福喜路一直往南,到冯兰庄再往南进入左堤路,然后从王子店村穿过,走水泥路到河边再乘坐摆渡船(10元一次)过河!直达西集上京沈!完全避开了通燕高速的严重堵车路段!

 

  有人不解,说为什么不直接修座桥?可现实就是:修了路,路堵;修了桥,也要堵。为啥?修桥了,路通了,挨着北京的房地产,立马就被炒起来,以后别说北京,河北的房也买不起了。

  大家开始担忧这网友一爆料,估计明天百度和高德就该往这儿指路了,摆渡船也开始拥堵了。要不来个滴滴打船?

 

  【上墙巴】

 

  发财致富不是梦!

 

  我们不包分配,但可以提供机会:)

 

  看来科技还不够发达。

 

  就说思考选项的时候是不是很爽?

  【聊聊巴】

  什么东西曾经让你魂牵梦绕戒不掉瘾?

  (戒不掉鸡腿的小巴)

 

  神吐槽周一至周五下午更新,周六上午更新,第一时间抢沙发,请跟我左手右手一个慢动作:

  如果使用搜狐新闻客户端请看下图

  

 
 

  本栏目内容纯属吐槽,阅后如有不适请及时服用板蓝根。特此声明。

  关注微信公众号"狐狸罐头"(shoujisouhu),获取更多精彩有趣的内容。

http://news.sohu.com/20170321/n484073253.shtml news.sohu.com true 搜狐网 http://news.sohu.com/20170321/n484073253.shtml report 15916 修仙入我心,忘记海洛因。最新发现,一股来自东方的神秘力量,竟然可以轻轻松松戒毒瘾!【中国网络小说走红国外让美国男子成功戒除毒瘾】美国某男子失恋后成了瘾君子,一次 (责任编辑:刘恋 UN837)

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双语热点:电动车前方的一大“路障”:报废的锂电池怎么办?******

汽车电气化的到来比我们原想象的要快得多。到2040年,全球三分之二的载人汽车将会是电动车。汽车电气化带动锂电池的生产也不断升高,但是如何处理报废旧电池却是一个令人头痛的大问题。

Lithium batteries' big unanswered question

As the quiet whirr of electric vehicles gradually replaces the revs and noxious fumes of internal combustion engines, a number of changes are set to filter through our familiar world. The overpowering smell of gas stations will fade away into odourless charge stations where cars can re-juice their batteries as needed. Meanwhile, gas-powered generator sites that dot the horizon may be retrofitted to house massive batteries that could one day power entire cities with renewable energy.

当公路上燃油汽车内燃机产生的震动和排放的有毒气体正逐渐被电动汽车的平稳和静音所取代之时,我们所熟悉的世界将会发生很多变化。加油站的刺鼻气味将逐渐消失,取而代之的是提供汽车随时可以充电但却无刺鼻气味的充电站。同时,天边随处可见的天然气发电站也可能会重建为能容纳大型电池的电站,这些大型电池有朝一日可以作为再生能源为整个城市提供电力。

This electrified future is much closer than you might think. General Motors announced earlier this year that it plans to stop selling gas-powered vehicles by 2035. Audi's goal is to stop producing them by 2033, and many other major auto companies are following suit. In fact, two-thirds of the world's passenger vehicle sales will be electric by 2040. And grid-scale systems the world over are growing rapidly thanks to advancing battery storage technology.

汽车电气化的到来比我们原想象的要快得多。美国通用汽车2021年年初宣布,计划在2035年前停止销售汽油动力汽车。德国汽车制造商奥迪的目标是到2033年停止生产燃油车,其他大型汽车公司也纷纷跟随。到2040年,全球三分之二的载人汽车将会是电动车。由于电池储电技术的进步,全球电网的电池储电系统也正在迅速发展。

While this may sound like the ideal path to sustainable power and road travel, there's one big problem. Currently, lithium (Li) ion batteries are those typically used in EVs and the megabatteries used to store energy from renewables, and Li batteries are hard to recycle.

虽然汽车电气化的到来听来像是实现可持续能源和公路环保旅行最理想不过的路径,但有一个大问题成为实现理想的障碍。目前,通常用于电动车和存储可再生能源的超大容量电池是锂离子电池(简称锂电池),而锂电池很难做到回收利用。

One reason is that the most widely used methods of recycling more traditional batteries, like lead-acid batteries, don't work well with Li batteries. The latter are typically larger, heavier, much more complex and even dangerous if taken apart wrong.

一个原因是,现在广泛适用于传统电池,如铅酸电池的回收技术,无法用于锂电池的回收。锂电池比前者更大和更重、而且构造更复杂,如果拆开方法不当,甚至会有危险。

In your average battery recycling plant, battery parts are shredded down into a powder, and then that powder is either melted (pyrometallurgy) or dissolved in acid (hydrometallurgy). But Li batteries are made up of lots of different parts that could explode if they're not disassembled carefully. And even when Li batteries are broken down this way, the products aren't easy to reuse.

在一般的电池回收工厂中,电池零件先被粉碎成粉状颗粒,然后再加以熔化(即火法冶金),或溶解到酸液中(即湿法冶金),以回收其中的金属物。而锂电池则由很多不同的部件组成,如果不小心拆卸,这些部件可能会爆炸。即使锂电池按一般电池作分解,分解出来的产品也很难回收再用。

"The current method of simply shredding everything and trying to purify a complex mixture results in expensive processes with low value products," says Andrew Abbott, a physical chemist at the University of Leicester. As a result, it costs more to recycle them than to mine more lithium to make new ones. Also, since large scale, cheap ways to recycle Li batteries are lagging behind, only about 5% of Li batteries are recycled globally, meaning the majority are simply going to waste.

英国莱斯特大学(University of Leicester)的物理化学家安德鲁·阿伯特(Andrew Abbott)说,“目前的电池回收方法只是简单地将所有东西粉碎,然后再提取精炼复杂的混合物,这一回收过程成本高,但成功回收的产品价值却不高。”因此,回收锂电池的成本比开采更多金属锂来生产新锂电池的成本还要大。此外,由于大规模廉价回收锂电池的方式相当落后,全球只有大约5%的锂电池能够回收。换言之,大多数锂电池最后都成了垃圾废品。

But as demand for EVs escalates, as it's projected to, the impetus to recycle more of them is set to barrel through the battery and motor vehicle industry.

不过随着对电动汽车的需求不断升级,就如预计所料,电池业和汽车行业很快将会有更大的动力回收更多的电动车电池。

The current shortcomings in Li battery recycling isn't the only reason they are an environmental strain. Mining the various metals needed for Li batteries requires vast resources. It takes 500,000 gallons (2,273,000 litres) of water to mine one tonne of lithium. In Chile's Atacama Salt Flats, lithium mining has been linked to declining vegetation, hotter daytime temperatures and increasing drought conditions in national reserve areas. So even though EVs may help reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions over their lifetime, the battery that powers them starts its life laden with a large environmental footprint.

锂电池的回收还不是造成环境压力的唯一原因。开采锂电池所需的各种金属需要大量资源。开采一吨锂需要消耗50万加仑的水。在智利的阿塔卡马盐滩(Atacama Salt Flats),因为开采锂矿,结果造成植被减少、白天气温升高,以及所在的国家保护区干旱日益严重等环保问题。因此,尽管电动汽车可以有助于减少二氧化碳的排放,但为其提供动力的电池一开始就对环境造成了很大的影响。

If the millions upon millions of Li batteries that will give out after around 10 years or so of use are recycled more efficiently, however, it will help neutralise all that energy expenditure. Several labs have been working on refining more efficient recycling methods so that, eventually, a standardised, eco-friendly way to recycle Li batteries will be ready to meet skyrocketing demand.

锂电池使用大约10年就会报废,如果能有效回收报废的千百万块锂电池,将有助于中和生产及回收锂电池所消耗的能源。现已有好一些科研实验室在改进更有效的回收方法,一旦成功,最终能找到一个既标准化也很环保的回收技术,就能充分迎接锂电池需求量大增时代的到来。

"We have to find ways to make it enter what we call a circular lifecycle, because the lithium and the cobalt and nickel take a lot of electricity and a lot of effort to be mined and refined and made into the batteries. We can no longer treat the batteries as disposable," says Shirley Meng, professor in energy technologies at the University of California, San Diego.

加州大学圣地亚哥分校(University of California, San Diego)的能源技术教授孟颖(Shirley Meng)说,“我们必须找到方法让锂电池进入我们所说的循环生命周期,因为锂、钴和镍需要大量的电力和大量的工作来开采、提炼和制造电池。我们不能再把锂电池当作一次性使用的产品。”

How to recycle Li batteries

如何回收锂电池

A Li battery cell has a metal cathode, or positive electrode that collects electrons during the electrochemical reaction, made of lithium and some mix of elements that typically include cobalt, nickel, manganese and iron. It also has an anode, or the electrode that releases electrons to the external circuit, made of graphite, a separator and an electrolyte of some kind, which is the medium that transports the electrons between cathode and anode. The lithium ions travelling from the anode to the cathode form an electric current. The metals in the cathode are the most valuable parts of the battery, and these are what chemists focus on preserving and refurbishing when they dismantle an Li battery.

锂电池有一个金属阴极装置,或称为正极,由锂和一些混合元素组成,通常包括钴、镍、锰和铁,其作用是在电化学反应中接受电子。锂电池还有一个阳极装置,或称负极,由石墨、分离器和某种电解液组成,功能是将阴极的电子释放到外部电路。电解液作用是充当阳极到阴极之间传输锂离子而形成电流的介质。阴极中的金属是电池最有价值的部分,这是化学家拆卸锂电池时主要保存和提炼的物质。

Meng says to think of an Li battery like a bookshelf with many layers, and the lithium ions rapidly move across each shelf, cycling back each time to the top shelf – a process called intercalation. After years and years, the bookshelf naturally starts to break down and collapse. So when chemists like Meng dismantle an Li battery, that's the sort of degradation they see in the structure and materials.

孟颖说,可以把锂离子电池想象成一个有许多层隔的书架,而锂离子会经过书架每一层快速移动,每次循环都会回到最上面的一层,这个化学过程被称为插层,或曰嵌入。经历多年的不断嵌入后,这个锂电池书架自然会崩坏坍塌。所以当化学家如孟颖等拆卸这个用了几年的锂电池时,他们在锂电池结构和材料上所看到的就是这种退化。

"We can actually find the mechanisms, [and] either using heat or some kind of chemical treatment method, we can put the bookshelf back [together]," says Meng. "So we can let those recycled and refurbished materials go back to the assembly line to the [Li battery] factories to be made into new batteries."

孟颖说,“我们可以找到其中的机制,通过加热或某种化学处理方法,把这个锂电池书架重新组装起来。因此,我们可以把这些回收和翻新的金属材料送回到锂电池工厂的装配线,生产新的电池。”

Improving Li battery recycling and ultimately making their parts reusable will reinfuse value into the Li batteries already out there. This is why scientists are advocating for the direct recycling process Meng describes – because it can give the most precious parts of Li batteries, like the cathode and anode, a second life. This could significantly offset the energy, waste and costs associated with manufacturing them.

改善锂电池的回收利用,并最终实现可重复使用其部件,将会为价值颇高的锂电池再增加新的价值。这就是为什么科学家们要提倡直接回收再用,如孟颖所说,因为直接回收可以给锂电池的价值最高部件,即阴极和阳极材料予第二次生命。这可以显著抵消制造锂电池所消耗的能源和废料,以及付出的成本。

But disassembling Li batteries is currently being done predominantly by hand in lab settings, which will need to change if direct recycling is to compete with more traditional recycling methods. "In the future, there will need to be more technology in disassembly," says Abbott. "If a battery is assembled using robots, it is logical that it needs to be disassembled in the same way."

但目前锂电池的拆卸主要还只能是实验室中靠人手完成,如果直接回收利用要与较传统的回收方法相竞争,就需要改变人手拆卸这种低效率的方法。阿伯特说:“未来需要技术含量较高的拆卸法。如果用机器人组装电池,那么以同样的方式予以拆卸也是合逻辑的。”

Abbott's team at the Faraday Institution in the UK is investigating the robotic disassembly of Li batteries as part of the ReLib Project, which specialises in the recycling and reuse of Li batteries. The team has also found a way to achieve direct recycling of the anode and cathode using an ultrasonic probe, "like what the dentist uses to clean your teeth," he explains. "It focuses ultrasound on a surface which creates tiny bubbles that implode and blast the coating off the surface." This process avoids having to shred the battery parts, which can make recovering them exceedingly difficult.

阿伯特在英国法拉第研究所(Faraday Institution)的团队正在研发机器人拆卸锂电池的技术,这是专门研究锂电池的回收和再利用计划ReLib Project的一部分。这个研究团队还发现了一种利用超声波探头实现阳极端和阴极端直接回收的方法。他解释道,“就像牙医清洁牙齿一样,用超声波聚焦在正负两个电极板表面,使内层产生微小的气泡,然后发生内爆,将表面的涂层炸离。”这一过程维护了这两个重要部件的完整,避免了以往必须完全拆解因而使得回收大不易这个难题。

According to Abbott's team's research, this ultrasonic recycling method can process 100 times more material over the same period than the more traditional hydrometallurgy method. He says it can also be done for less than half the cost of creating a new battery from virgin material.

根据阿伯特团队的研究,在同样长的时间,这种超声波回收方法可以比传统的湿法冶金方法多处理100倍的材料。他说,这种回收技术所耗成本甚至还不到用原始材料制造新电池成本的一半。

Abbott believes the process can easily be applied to scale, and used on larger grid-based batteries, because they typically have the same battery cell structure, they just contain more cells. However, the team is currently only applying it to production scrap, from which parts are easier to separate, because they're already free of their casings. The team's robotic dismantling tests are ramping up though. "We have a demonstrator unit that currently works on whole electrodes and we hope in the next 18 months to be able to showcase an automated process working in a production facility," says Abbott.

阿伯特认为,超声波回收技术很容易作规模性回收,可运用于为电网储电的大型电池,因为这种电池的结构通常与电动车电池相同,只是包含更多的电池组而已。不过这个研究团队目前只将超声波回收技术应用于比较容易拆卸的报废电池,因为这些电池已经没有外壳。不过,研究团队也在加强测试机器人拆解技术。阿伯特说,“我们有一个演示的机器人,目前在展示回收整个电极的工作。我们希望在未来的18个月能够展示在生产线工作的自动化流程。”

Degradable batteries

可降解的电池

Some scientists are advocating for a move away from Li batteries in favour of ones that can be produced and broken down in more eco-friendly ways. Jodie Lutkenhaus, a professor of chemical engineering at Texas A&M University, has been working on a battery that is made of organic substances that can degrade on command.

一些科学家正在提倡抛弃锂电池,转为使用能够以较环保的方式生产和分解的电池。美国德州农工大学(Texas A&M University)的化学工程教授朱迪·卢肯豪斯(Jodie Lutkenhaus)一直在研究一种由有机物质制成可以按指令降解的电池。

"Many batteries today are not recycled because of the associated energy and labour cost," says Lutkenhaus. "Batteries that degrade on command may simplify or lower the barrier to recycling. Eventually, these degradation products could be reconstituted back into a fresh new battery, closing the materials life-cycle loop."

卢肯豪斯说,“由于相关的能源和劳动力成本,今天许多电池是无法回收的。而按指令可降解的电池可以简化或降低回收的障碍。最终,这些降解产物可以被重新组装成新的电池,从而结束电池材料最后只能报废的结局。”

It's a fair argument considering that, even when a Li battery is dismantled and its parts are refurbished, there will still be some parts that can't be saved and become waste. A degradable battery like the one Lutkenhaus' team is working on could be a more sustainable power source.

这是相当合理的论点,因为即使拆卸锂电池后有一些部件可以翻新再用,但仍然会有一些部分无法保存而永远报废。卢肯豪斯团队正在研究的可降解电池可能是一种可持续性更强的能源手段。

Organic Radical Batteries (ORBs) have been around since the 2000s, and function with the help of organic materials that are synthesised to store and release electrons. "An Organic Radical Battery has two of these [materials], both acting as electrodes, that work in concert to store and release electrons, or energy, together," explains Lutkenhaus.

这种名叫有机自由基电池(ORBS)的可降解电池在21世纪初已问世,其机制是通过合成有机材料来存储和释放电量。卢肯豪斯解释说。“有机自由基电池有两种这样的有机物,都能作为电极材料,协同存储和释放电子或能量。”

The team uses an acid to break their ORBs down into amino acids and other byproducts, however, conditions need to be just right for the parts to degrade properly. "Eventually we found that acid at elevated heat worked," says Lutkenhaus.

这个研究小组使用一种酸将有机电池分解成氨基酸和其他副产品,不过需要恰到好处的环境条件才能正常降解。卢肯豪斯说,“最终,我们发现酸在高温下能起降解作用。”

There are a number of challenges ahead for this degradable battery though. The materials needed to create it are expensive, and it has yet to provide the amount of power required for high-demand applications like EVs and power grids. But perhaps the greatest challenge degradable batteries like Lutkenhaus's face is competing with the already well-established Li battery.

然而,这种可降解电池还面临着许多挑战。首先所需的材料非常昂贵,其次还不能提供电动汽车和电网这类需求高电量的电池。不过并非仅止于此,卢肯豪斯等科学家研发的可降解电池面临的最大挑战可能是如何与已经规模生产广泛应用的锂电池相竞争。

The next step for scientists pushing direct recycling of Li batteries forward is working with battery manufacturers and recycling plants to streamline the process from build to breakdown.

科学家推动直接回收锂电池的下一步是与电池制造商和回收工厂合作,简化从建造到分解的过程。

"We are really encouraging all the battery cell manufacturers to barcode all the batteries so with robotic AI techniques we can easily sort out the batteries," says Meng. "It takes the entire field to cooperate with each other in order to make that happen."

孟颖说,“我们鼓励所有的电池制造商给所有的电池贴上条形码,有了人工智能机器人技术,我们可以很容易拣选电池。这需要整个领域的合作才能实现。”

Li batteries are used to power many different devices, from laptops to cars to power grids, and the chemical makeup differs depending on the purpose, sometimes significantly. This should be reflected in the way they're recycled. Scientists say battery recycling plants must separate the various Li batteries into separate streams, similar to how different types of plastic are sorted when recycled, in order for the process to be most efficient.

锂电池用来为众多不同的设备供电,比如笔记本电脑、电动汽车,以及输电网等,因而锂电池的化学组成因用途不同会有所区别,有时差异会很大。这使得回收也应该有不同方式。科学家说,电池回收工厂必须将各种锂电池分成不同的工作流程,就像塑料回收要对不同类型的塑料进行分类一样,这样才能使回收过程最为有效。

And even though they face an uphill battle, more sustainable batteries are slowly but surely coming onto the scene. "We can already see designs entering the market which make assembly and disassembly easier, and it is probable that this will be an important topic in future battery development," says Abbott.

尽管科学家的研发面临着重重困难,可持续性更强的电池正缓慢而稳步地进入市场。阿伯特说,“我们已经可以看到,组装和拆卸较容易的设计已经进入市场,这很可能是未来电池发展的一个重要主题。”

On the production side, battery and car manufacturers are working on cutting down on the materials needed to build Li batteries to help reduce energy expenditure during mining and the waste each battery creates at the end of its life.

在生产方面,电池和汽车制造商正在努力减少制造锂电池所需的材料,以帮助减少采矿过程中的能源消耗,以及每个电池在寿命结束时产生的废物。

Electric car manufacturers have also begun to reuse and repurpose their own batteries in a number of different ways. For example, Nissan is refurbishing old Leaf car batteries and putting them in automated guided vehicles that bring parts to its factories.

电动汽车制造商也开始以各种不同的方式回收和翻新再用自产汽车的电池。例如,日产汽车翻新聆风(Leaf)电动汽车的旧电池,然后安装在将零部件运送到日产工厂组装线的自动导航车辆上。

Speed bumps ahead

前方有减速带

The steadily increasing market demand for EVs already has companies across the automobile industry spending billions of dollars on increasing the sustainability of Li batteries. However, China is currently the largest producer of Li batteries by far, and subsequently ahead when it comes to recycling them.

电动汽车市场需求的稳步增长,已经促使整个汽车行业花费数十亿美元来提高锂电池的可持续性。中国目前是锂电池的最大生产国,因此在回收领域也有能力领先同业。

The advent of a less complex, safer battery that is cheaper to make and easier to separate at the end of its life is the ultimate answer to the current sustainability problem with EVs. But until such a battery makes an appearance, standardising Li battery recycling is a significant move in the right direction.

解决当前电动汽车可持续发展问题的最终答案,是要找到一种不那么复杂但却比较安全,制造成本较低但寿命结束后却较易分解的电池。但在这种理想电池问世之前,锂电池回收技术标准化是朝着正确方向迈出的重要一步。

And in about 2025, when millions of EV batteries reach the end of their initial life cycles, a streamlined recycling process will look much more appealing to economies the world over. So perhaps, by the time EVs become the predominant form of transport, there will be a good chance their batteries will be gearing up for a second life.

到2025年左右,数以百万计的电动汽车的电池将达到其初始寿命周期完结之时,因此一个简单而高效率的电池回收流程对全世界的经济体都会深具吸引力。所以,当电动汽车成为人类主要交通工具的时候,很有可能那时电动车电池将不会寿终正寝,而会获得第二次生命,重新启动汽车驰上公路。

明明是春天,重庆街头却黄叶成堆如同秋天,你知道为什么吗?******

原标题:明明是春天,重庆街头却黄叶成堆如同秋天,你知道为什么吗?

今天是一年一度的谷雨,这是春天的最后一个节气,这时候太阳到达黄经30°,源自古人“雨生百谷”之说,这时候也是一年一度最适合播种移苗、埯瓜点豆的时候,然而明明是春天,但是重庆街头,我们看到的景象,却如同秋天一样。

谷雨时节,重庆真的飘起了小雨,中午的时候有短暂放晴,早上和下午都一直沥沥淅淅下过不停,也正是这样的降温的天气,让重庆街头,到处都可以看到大量的落叶,其中以黄桷树最为明显,为什么会这样呢?下午我们一起来聊聊这个话题。

黄桷树原名为黄葛树,是重庆的市树,由于在重庆方言中“角”与“葛”读音相同,加之重庆人认为树木名称应有“木”旁,像金属都有“金”旁,鱼类都有“鱼”旁,江河湖海都有三点水一样,所以重庆人一直都将黄葛树称为“黄桷树”。

作为市树,黄桷树不仅在重庆大街小巷随处可见,而且重庆市名有很多地方都以黄桷命名,比如黄桷坪、黄桷垭、黄桷峡、黄桷渡等,这种树的生命力极为顽强,很多都生长在石坎、石崖和城墙上,根系紧紧地扎在石头缝里,屹然而立。它属于“气生根”植物,只需少量的根系置入土壤就能生长,裸露的根须则可以直接从空气中吸收水分。

黄桷树属高大落叶乔木,其茎干粗壮,树形奇特,悬根露爪,蜿蜒交错,古态盎然。枝杈密集,大枝横伸,小枝斜出虬曲。不仅生命力强大,而且也很长寿,百年甚至几百年的古树在重庆都是很常见的,它们犹如一把把巨伞,为人们遮风挡雨。

至于黄桷树,为什么会在春天落叶?以前常有人解释说是什么季节栽种的,它便在什么时候落叶,其实这样的说活并没有科学依据,属于一种误传,黄葛树是介于落叶与常绿之间的冬青树种,树叶的寿命较长。按理应在深秋初冬的季节落叶却延长到第二年仲春初夏才开始掉落,并且一落叶,马上就长出嫩叶,甚至有些树是边落叶边发新芽。

另一方面,以更科学的解释是,像黄桷树这样的冬青物种,春天落叶延长了叶片的寿命,主要有两个好处,第一是叶片能够更长时间地进行光合作用,为植株在春天的生长提供更多能量,其二则是冬天没有脱落的老叶中的氮磷等养分可以被转运到春天的新生叶中,这样减少了因落叶造成的养分不足,有利于春天新叶的迅速生长。

也正因为如此,所以重庆这几天因为下雨降温而加速了这类冬青树种的落叶,才出现了这组图片中街头落叶成堆的现象,而且这样的现象并不是重庆所独有,南方很多城市都普遍存在这个问题,其中又以黄桷树、阔叶榕等树种为最。

对于这样的解释,你明白了吗?

倒计时一天!2022中国网络文明大会亮点抢先看

1.顺义累计采集30余万份样本,结果均为阴性

2.美交通部将暂停26个中国航司承运的赴华航班

3.矛头指向又一家科技巨头!美国司法部拟对苹果发起反垄断诉讼

4.自主MPV王炸来袭?全新广汽传祺M8竞争力分析!

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