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時間:2022-08-23 來源:本站 點擊:258次
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世界首例!猪肾成功移植人体在体外“成活”3天******

  据路透社、《纽约时报》等媒体报道,近日,美国研究团队第一次成功将猪肾移植到人体上,进行实验的54小时中没有发生立即性的免疫系统排斥反应,这被视为一项具有潜力的重大医学突破,最终或许有助于解决人类器官捐献供不应求的情形。

  医生将猪肾连接人体

  猪肾脏在体外“成活”3天

  近日,纽约大学兰贡医疗中心实施了全球首例猪肾移植人体手术。报道称,患者已经脑死亡,患有肾功能失调。她生前希望捐献器官,但出于某些原因无法实现。在医生为她拔除生命维持器前,她的家人同意进行移植猪肾的测试,以这种方式让她为医学研究做出贡献。

  征得患者家属同意后,医生把一个猪肾连接到患者一对大血管上,为方便研究人员近距离观察,猪肾留在患者体外。与患者血管相连后,猪肾正常发挥过滤废物、产生尿液的作用,排尿水平与移植人类肾脏相当。患者手术前肌酐水平异常,在移植后恢复正常。肌酐水平是衡量肾功能是否健全的指标之一。移植手术3天后,患者生命支持设备按预定日期去除。进行手术实验的54小时中没有发生立即性的免疫系统排斥反应。

  主刀医生罗伯特·蒙哥马利表示,猪细胞中一种名为“alpha-gal”的糖分子会引起人体免疫系统的排异反应,会让人体产生严重的过敏反应。而这次手术的“肾源”并非普通的猪,而是经基因改造、去除这种糖分子的猪,它的身体组织内几乎没有可能会立即引发人体免疫系统攻击、造成排斥反应的分子,因此手术没有立即引起排异反应。

  蒙哥马利指出,这颗猪肾能够过滤废物,并制造出和一般移植肾脏相同的预期尿液量,他说:“这比我们预期的结果更好,几乎立刻就开始制造尿液和肌酐废物。很多从死者身上取下的肾脏无法在手术后马上发挥功用,必须花数天或数周才能运作,但这次实验立刻就奏效了。”

  1984年美国一女婴

  移植狒狒心脏活了21天

  将动物器官移植到人类身上代替病变的人体器官,这种治疗方式叫做“异种移植”,其历史可以追溯至17世纪,当时人们试着用动物血输血,但没有成功。

  上世纪60年代左右,人类开始尝试将黑猩猩的肾脏移植到少数人类患者身上,但大多数人不久后便死了,患者中延续生命最长的时间是9个月。1984年,美国一名外科医生尝试将狒狒的心脏移植到人类身上,受试者是一名不到一个月大的女婴,她患有左心发育不全综合症,用狒狒的心脏活了21天,女婴短暂生命和快速死亡引发全球关注。

  由于手术成果无法维持太久,许多人谴责“杀死我们最亲近的动物以拯救自己”的想法,引发伦理争议。于是,科学家们将实验目标从灵长类换到猪身上,并通过修改猪的基因来弥补物种差距。

  报道称,由于猪是人类的食物之一,仅在美国一年就吃掉1.2亿只猪,所以比起猴子或猿类,使用它们的器官进行移植争议相对较少,而且猪一胎的幼崽生产数量较高,怀孕周期也短,猪的器官与人类器官大小、功能等方面都具有相似性。但这个设想实现起来依旧很复杂,早期主要障碍是排异反应,后期则是猪病毒传染的危险。

  美国首次批准基因改造猪上市

  用于生产药品、提供组织和器官移植

  2020年12月,美国食品药品监督管理局首次批准基因改造猪上市,用于生产药品,提供移植组织和器官。

  基因改造猪由美国联合医疗公司旗下子品牌打造,被称为“GalSafe猪”。这种猪目前约有100头,以严格控制的条件饲育于美国的爱荷华州。这次移植手术使用的基因改造猪就来自这里。

  不过,美国食药监局表示,如果以“GalSafe猪”开发的医疗产品要应用于人体或者将其纳入移植器官选项之一,还是得再次经过他们的特别许可才能正式上路。

  或将突破器官供应难题

  可能一两年内纳入医疗领域

  根据美国非营利组织“器官共享联合网络”的数据显示,在美国,约10.7万人在等待器官移植,其中有9万人是在等待肾脏,通常必须要排队三到五年才有可能获得机会,因此每天都有12人久候不及去世。美国目前有超过50万名的肾衰竭患者,只能依靠洗肾维持身体机能,他们基本上是没有资格接受移植手术的,因为器官捐赠的数量实在太过稀少,必须优先留给最有可能在手术后健康存活的人。

  因此,想方设法从别的来源取得器官成为人类发展医疗领域的要务之一。科学家此前已成功使用猪心瓣膜和胰腺做人体组织的替代物。猪皮也可以帮助烧伤病人进行植皮手术,抗凝血的肝素也是从猪肠中萃取出来的。

  报道称,猪肾移植到人体无排异反应这一实验具有里程碑意义,被视为一项具有潜力的重大医学突破。最终或许有助于解决人类器官捐献供不应求,导致每年有无数病患在等待中抱憾而终的情形。专家们希望这项技术未来有一天能够解决全球器官捐献严重短缺的困境。

  “对肾病患者中的很多人来说,他们的死亡率跟一些癌症一样高,而无论是使用新药物或是进行新实验,我们在面对癌症患者时都不会考虑太多,因为这或许可以让他们再多活上几个月。”蒙哥马利说,本次研究或许将造福肾衰竭晚期的患者,而且可能在一两年内就可以正式纳入医疗领域。“目前实验只让猪肾运行了不到3天,来可能发现必须被克服的新障碍。”

  “器官共享联合网络”负责人克拉森表示,这次实验可以说是创造了一个分水岭。但他同时表示,就算人与人之间的器官移植在匹配度良好状况下还会发生长期器官排斥反应,更何况如今还是跨越物种案例。肾脏可不只有清除血液中的废物与毒素的功能,接受移植的患者也有可能在手术后感染猪的病毒。华商报记者 郭霁 编译


来源:华商网-华商报

编辑:唐港

Abramovich puts Chelsea soccer club up for sale as clamor for sanctions grows******

AFP

In this file photo taken on May 21, 2017, Chelsea's Russian owner Roman Abramovich applauds, as players celebrate their league title win at the end of the Premier League football match between Chelsea and Sunderland at Stamford Bridge in London.

Russian businessman Roman Abramovich said on Wednesday he would sell Chelsea Football Club, 19 years after buying it and setting the team on a path to sporting glory, and promised to donate money from the sale to help victims in Ukraine.

Amid growing calls for Abramovich to be hit by sanctions after Russia's military operation, the metals magnate said in a statement that a sale was in the best interests of the reigning European and world soccer champions.

"In the current situation, I have therefore taken the decision to sell the club, as I believe this is in the best interest of the club, the fans, the employees, as well as the club's sponsors and partners," he said.

Abramovich said he would not ask for loans he has made to the Premier League club – reported to total 1.5 billion pounds (US$2 billion) – to be repaid to him and the sale would not be fast-tracked.

He has told his aides to set up a charitable foundation that would receive all net proceeds from the sale.

"This includes providing critical funds towards the urgent and immediate needs of victims, as well as supporting the long-term work of recovery," he said in the statement.

Swiss business tycoon Hansjoerg Wyss told a newspaper that he was considering buying Chelsea from Abramovich who over the weekend said he was stepping back from running the club but made no mention of any plans to change its ownership.

"Abramovich is currently trying to sell all his villas in England. He also wants to get rid of Chelsea quickly now. I, along with three other people, received an offer on Tuesday to buy Chelsea from Abramovich," Blick quoted Wyss as saying in an interview published on Wednesday.

Trophy haul

Abramovich bought the West London club in 2003 for a reported 140 million pounds and his investment contributed hugely to the most successful era in the team's history as they won five Premier League titles, five FA Cups and the Champions League twice.

His purchase of the club helped transform the landscape of English football with Chelsea breaking the stranglehold of Manchester United, Arsenal and Liverpool.

They beat Brazilian side Palmeiras last month to become FIFA Club World Cup champions for the first time, having defeated Manchester City to become European champions last season.

"A seismic moment" was how BBC presenter and former England striker Gary Lineker described the announcement ahead of coverage of Chelsea's FA Cup fifth-round tie at Luton Town.

Chelsea fans at Kenilworth Road chanted the Russian's name before kickoff.

The 55-year-old, who has Israeli and Portuguese citizenship, became one of Russia's most powerful businessmen by earning fabulous fortunes after the 1991 break-up of the Soviet Union. Forbes has put his net worth at US$13.3 billion.

British opposition Labour leader Keir Starmer asked Prime Minister Boris Johnson on Wednesday why there had not been sanctions against the Chelsea owner. Johnson, speaking in parliament, said he could not go into details on specific cases.

But Foreign Secretary Liz Truss has warned that she has drawn up a "hit list" of Russian oligarchs and said the government would impose new sanctions on them every few weeks.

The Financial Times said the government was also making plans to seize property owned by Russian oligarchs.

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英特尔首批12代酷睿处理器发布,2098元起******

  今日,intel 12代酷睿(代号Alder Lake)正式发布,它采用10nm ESF工艺(官方名称:intel 7工艺),升级全新的混合架构(性能核心+能效核心),形状变为长方形,接口也随之更换为LGA 1700。

  根据官方发布的数据,12代酷睿Alder Lake的IPC相比上一代提升19%。

  游戏性能提升如下图所示。

  i9-12900K具备8个性能核心+8个效能核心,组成的16核24线程的设计。处理器默认主频为3.2GHz,最大睿频可达到5.2Ghz,全核睿频达到5.0Ghz,配有30MB三级缓存,支持AVX,AVX2等指令集,TDP设计为125W,内置UHD770核心显卡,支持DDR4-3200和DDR5-4800两种规格,处理器支持PCIe 5.0。

  此外还有i7-12700K(12核20线程,8+4核设计),和i5-12600K(10核16线程,6+4核设计) ,同时三款型号也将分别提供不带核显的KF版本,价格更加便宜。

  可超频版英特尔12代酷睿Alder Lake桌面处理器现已开放预订,将于11月4日正式开售。

  i9-12900K售价为589美元,国行预售价4989元;

  i9-12900KF售价为564美元,国行预售价4689元;

  i7-12700K售价为409美元,国行预售价3189元;

  i7-12700KF售价为384 美元,国行预售价2989元;

  i5-12600K售价为289美元,国行预售价2289元;

  i5-12600KF售价为264美元,国行预售价2089元。

China's Shanxi reports surging foreign trade in Jan.******

TAIYUAN, Oct. 26 (Xinhua) -- North China's Shanxi Province saw robust growth in foreign trade in the first three quarters of 2021, data from Taiyuan Customs showed.

The total import and export value hit 170.3 billion yuan (about 26.7 billion U.S. dollars) from January to September, up 76.8 percent compared with the same period last year, according to the data.

Exports soared to 104.5 billion yuan, registering an 87.8-percent increase over the same period last year, while imports totaled 65.8 billion yuan, up 61.9 percent.

The province's private enterprises posted rapid growth in imports and exports during the period, with the figure growing 161.2 percent to 55.6 billion yuan.

The inland province's trade volume with countries and regions along the Belt and Road hit 37.2 billion yuan in the first three quarters, accounting for 21.9 percent of the province's total foreign trade. Enditem

美国飞机相撞细节:事发前飞行员曾互相通话

1.中式快餐IPO“三国杀”,得外卖者得天下?

2.女子称在殡仪馆上班一晚挣1600元,殡仪馆辟谣,业内:月薪就几千元

3.麋鹿河滩嬉戏与发电风车旋转“同框”,江苏大丰是如何做到的?

4.“王牌”武器设计师本京:“投入全部激情才能持续前进”

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